Bavarica in maps
Numerous map sheets from the holdings of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek document the political, economic and territorial development of Bavaria.
The earliest maps are from the 16th century, with the collection's emphasis being on the 19th century. Maps of Bavaria and individual Bavarian regions and places are collected in the classification-mark group "Mapp. XI".
Topographical maps of Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden are classified in their chronological order starting with Mapp. XI,0, maps of the administrative districts starting with Mapp. XI,140 s up to Mapp. XI,393 fl, street maps of cities starting with Mapp. XI,393 fl and historical maps starting with Mapp. XI,588 up to Mapp. XI,601 z. Maps from all over the world from the library of Montgelas can be found in the classification-mark group starting with Mapp. XI,800.
Between 1554 and 1563, the mathematician and astronomer Philipp Apian from Ingolstadt produced a monumental map of the Duchy of Bavaria, however which was burnt in the 18th century. Materials connected with the "great map of Bavaria" can be found in Apian's personal papers, among them around 100 views of castles, palaces, monasteries and locations, as well as landscapes within the territory of the then Duchy of Bavaria.
In 1556, Apian had xylographs produced in a smaller scale on the basis of the "great map". These so-called "Bairische Landtaflen" (map panels of Bavaria), subdivided into 24 xylographs, were produced in Apian's own print shop. The Staatsbibliothek holds several editions of this printed work.
Between 1796 and 1805, Adrian von Riedl published a collection of around 60 road maps, the "Reise-Atlas von Baiern" (travel atlas of Bavaria). He is also the author of the atlas of Bavarian streams and waters, with 27 large-format maps which represent the Bavarian waters precisely for the first time ever.
A government commission surveyed and charted Bavaria in its entirety from 1808 to 1853 for the purpose of taxation of real estate. In the course of these endeavours, 22,000 large-format land-register maps were created, the so-called original cadastral land register. The hand-drawn originals are kept in the main state archive, the lithographic stone templates in the Bavarian State Agency for Digitization, Broadband and Land Surveying. The Bayerische Staatsbibliothek holds prints of the later editions. These Bavarian cadastral plans are classified in accordance with the numbers of the map sheets, without the "Mapp." classification mark, and can be ordered in the Reading Room for Music, Maps and Images on the basis of overview sheets.
The "Topographischer Atlas vom Königreiche Baiern" (topographical atlas of the Kingdom of Bavaria) was published in the form of 112 individual sheets from 1812 to 1867. It was the first comprehensive map work of Bavaria produced with modern and detailed recording methods. In later editions, the large-format sheets were halved and printed with the annotation "west" or "east". In 1903 a coloured edition was published.
The "Topographia Bavariae" designed in 1644 by Mattäus Merian and Martin Zeiller contains copper engravings of city views, monasteries and castles which are interesting from an art- and architecture-historical point of view. For Swabia, the "Topographia Sueviae" needs to be consulted, for Franconia the "Topographia Franconiae".
In 1687 and 1690, the "Kurbayerischer Atlas" (atlas of Electoral Bavaria) was published in two volumes by the Munich jurist Anton Wilhelm Ertl. The descriptions of the cities, municipalities, monasteries, abbeys and convents are illustrated by copper engravings crafted by Johann Ulrich Krauß.
Between 1701 and 1721, Michael Wening published the "Historica Topographica descriptio", an extensive description of the Electorate of Bavaria with views and descriptions of the cities, monasteries and castles of Bavaria, as commissioned by the Bavarian court and the Bavarian states. The work was published in four volumes, containing 846 views. The copper plates are preserved by the Bavarian State Agency for Digitization, Broadband and Land Surveying today, while the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek holds prints of the first edition.
Copper engravings by Michael Wening (in bavarikon)
Engraving of a city view by Michael Wening: Bad Kötzting (in bavarikon)
Engraving of a city view by Michael Wening: Castle Falkenstein (in bavarikon)